The permanent collection has over 2000 works of art. The largest area of the collection comprises modern drawings, paintings and prints by well known Americans such as John Marin, John Sloan, Charles Demuth, and Thomas Hart Benton and Europeans, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Paul Klee, Amedeo Modigliani, Pablo Picasso, and Joan Miro.

The collection also contains a sizable number of works by contemporary British artists such as Adrian Heath, Henry Moore, and Alan Reynolds. Smaller regional collections of the Fort Worth Circle ( 1945-1955 ) and Taos Modern artists round out the Museum's permanent holdings. Today, the Old Jail Art Center actively collects and showcases the work of young Texas artists.